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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Review of policies, strategies and laws related to child marriage, adolescent health, education and employment in five countries in West Africa

    Adolescent health and development are key foundations for a country's economic development and political stability. The outcomes of adolescent health are closely linked with future adult development, infant and child mortality, maternal morbidity and mortality, and even long-term economic development.

  2. HIV prevention among adolescent girls and young women: putting HIV prevention among adolescent girls and young women on the fast-track and engaging men and boys

    This programming guidance is meant to inform programmes that aim to reduce HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women in countries and locations where HIV incidence is high among adolescent girls and young women and where HIV is primarily spread through heterosexual transmission. This report primarily is for policymakers, planners and implementers of HIV prevention programmes across multiple sectors, including organizations led by young people. …

  3. Evidence for gender responsive actions to prevent violence: Young people’s health as a whole-of-society response

    The publication summarizes current knowledge on what works in preventing and managing violence. It is part of a series that includes social and emotional well-being, chronic conditions and disabilities, adolescent pregnancy, HIV/STIs, overweight and obesity, violence, injuries and substance abuse. The publication assumes the position that young people’s health is the responsibility of the whole society, and that interventions need to be gender responsive in order to be successful. …

  4. The Malawi Gender Equality Act - A teaching guide: For primary and secondary schools in Malawi

    This booklet is an educational resource to assist teachers in Malawi, to discuss and explore with your learners the new Gender Equality Act (GEA) 2013 written by the Government of Malawi. The emphasis of the GEA is on improving the lives of girls and women. However it is important that you include all learners, boys and girls, in the work you do in the classroom when exploring the GEA. This resource highlights key areas within the Act that are relevant to young people and should be seen as a positive step to benefit Malawian society as a whole. …

  5. Gender inequality and HIV transmission: a global analysis

    Introduction: The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15–24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young – often poor – women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the HIV epidemic. Confluent social forces, including political and gender violence, poverty, racism, and sexism impede equal access to therapies and effective care, but most of all constrain the agency of women. …

  6. Research into the needs of young people in Northern Ireland who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (LGBT)

    This research has been commissioned by the Department of Education as part of their statutory duty to promote equality of opportunity under Section 75 of the Northern Ireland Act (1998). Analysis of the Census 2001 indicates that between 2 and 10% of the population may be lesbian, gay or bisexual. This would indicated that there are between 12,190 and 60,953 LGB people under 25 years in Northern Ireland. …

  7. Gender Dynamics and Sexual Norms among Youth in Mali in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Socially constructed ideas of gender norms and values attached to sexuality need to be considered when aiming to build the young people’s capacity to adopt HIV preventive behaviours. We conducted ten focus groups and sixteen individual interviews to explore sexual norms among youth in Bamako. Premarital sex, multiple partnering, condom use and transactional sex were discussed. The findings suggest that young people’s sexual norms are shaped by kin or authoritative elders as well as by external influences coming from Western culture. …

  8. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  9. Broadening gender: Why masculinities matter. Attitudes, practices and gender-based violence in four districts in Sri Lanka

    In order to bridge the gap in evidence-based studies of masculinities in Sri Lanka, CARE International Sri Lanka undertook, together with Partners for Prevention (P4P), a UNDP, UNFPA, UN Women and UNV regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific, a study on men’s knowledge, practices and social attitudes toward gender and gender-based violence. This study brings out key risk factors in relation to violence against women, childhood trauma and men’s own experience of violence. …

  10. The Youth to Youth Initiative – an assessment of results in Ethiopia and Kenya

    This report, commissioned by the Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), brings out findings of an external assessment of the Youth-to-Youth (Y2Y) Initiative in Ethiopia and Kenya. The aim was to assess the results of the Y2Y-Initiative for young people with an emphasis on gender equality in the project regions both at individual level for participating young women and men as well as at the level of potentially changed perceptions of, and attitudes towards young people, in particular women, in their social environment.

  11. Lesbian, gay and bisexual citizenship: a case study as represented in a sample of South African life orientation textbooks

    Over the past two decades, sexual citizenship has emerged as a new form of citizenship coupled with increased interest in the challenges to citizenship and social justice faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people and, in particular, by sexual minority youth within education systems. In South Africa, the rights of LGBTI people have been institutionalized by legislation, and research has begun to consider how educators may facilitate a more inclusive school environment for LGBTI youth. …

  12. Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage

    This report is a call to decision makers, parents, communities and to the world to end child marriage. It documents the current scope, prevalence and inequities associated with child marriage. This document argues that child marriage jeopardizes girls’ rights and stands in the way of girls living educated, healthy and productive lives. Furthemore, early marriage also excludes girls from fundamental decisions, such as the timing of marriage and choice of spouse. Not to mention that all of the effects of early marriage put girls more at risk of contracting HIV and other STIs. …

  13. Cross-Generational Relationships: Perceived Norms and Practices in Jamaica

    This report from C-Change/FHI 360 documents a study that explored the dynamics of cross-generational relationships in Jamaica, with the aim of informing communication programs working to decrease cross-generational sexual practices and their related risks, including gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV. This study defined cross-generational sex as sexual behavior between two people who are at least 10 years different in age. The authors found that key motivators for participating in these relationships were sexual gratification and emotional and financial support. …

  14. Sexual risk behaviors among youth heads of household in Gikongoro, south province of Rwanda

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify risk behaviors that expose Rwandan young heads of household (YHH) to HIV infection, (b) determine gender-specific high-risk profiles and, (c) determine predictors of sexual onset. A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, ages 12–24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual risk behaviors. …

  15. Gendered perceptions of HIV risk among young women and men in a high-HIV-prevalence setting

    It has become evident that sexual health and HIV-risk behaviours cannot be addressed effectively without paying adequate attention to constructions of gender and sexuality. While the body of literature examining these themes is growing and becoming more nuanced, there is still a significant gap in our understanding of the relationship between gendered sexual identities and vulnerabilities to disease. In particular, few studies have explored how youths themselves perceive this relationship, and how these perceptions may differ among males and females. …

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