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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Confronting the reality: drug policy, young people who use drugs and a need for evidence-based interventions in Nigeria

    Nigeria, situated in West Africa with a population of about 178 million people, is the most populous African Nation. Over 60 per cent of this population are young people, hence the country can be described as youthful which is a crucial resource for growth and development. Like many West African countries, the country has a long history in being a trafficking route for illicit drugs from the major producing countries such as Latin America and Asia to the thriving European and North American market. …

  2. Adolescents under the radar in the Asia-Pacific AIDS response

    This report is the result of a collaborative effort between members of the Asia Pacific Inter-Agency Task Team on Young Key Populations and UNICEF. It highlights the HIV crisis for vulnerable adolescents in Asia and the Pacific and what we can do to give them the support they desperately need. If we fail to do this, the world will not get to where it wants to be: ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  3. Human rights and the HIV response: a rapid assessment of human rights violations in the context of HIV, in the Eastern and Southern Africa region, and a review of current approaches to protecting and promoting human rights for an effective HIV response

    Key populations, specifically people who sell sex (PWSS), people who inject drugs (PWID) and lesbian, and gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people experience significant human rights violations which underpin the continued high HIV incidence in these populations. This rapid assessment of human rights violations in Eastern and southern Africa focuses on three priority key populations – PWSS, LGBTI (including MSM), and PWID. The report outlines the normative international treaties that establish a basis for a human rights framework for the HIV response.

  4. The impacts of drug policies on children and young people

    As member states of the United Nations take stock of the drug control system, a number of debates have emerged among governments about how to balance international drug laws with human rights, public health, alternatives to incarceration, and experimentation with regulation. This series intends to provide a primer on why governments must not turn a blind eye to pressing human rights and public health impacts of current drug policies.

  5. Substance abuse among public secondary school students: prevalence, strategies and challenges for public secondary school managers in Kenya: a case study of Kisumu East sub county

    Substance abuse among public secondary school students is reality that is spreading at an alarming rate. If not checked, it could destroy the youth who are in their formative stage in life. Its outcomes include school dropouts, injuries, loss of lives, destruction of properties, moral decadence, misallocation of resources, indiscipline and compromised academic standards. According to the findings of a study conducted in 2005 on substance abuse in five major cities in Kenya, Kisumu and Nakuru lead the rest of the major cities and towns in the country in the prevalence of substance abuse. …

  6. Situational analysis of young people at high risk of HIV exposure in Thailand: Synthesis report

    The main goals of this project are to review the situation of young key affected populations (YKAP) HIV risk behaviours in Thailand, review the present policy and programmatic response for YKAP, identify gaps and promising practices for YKAP, and determine strategic future policy and programming interventions for YKAP. …

  7. HIV and adolescents: focus on young key populations

    Adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for HIV due to the many developmental, psychological, social, and structural transitions that converge in this period of the lifespan. In addition, adolescent deaths resulting from HIV continue to rise despite declines in other age groups. There are also young key populations (YKPs) that bear disproportionate burdens of HIV and are the most vulnerable, including young men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender youth, young people who inject drugs, and adolescent and young adult sex workers. …

  8. NewGen Asia: Building capacity in emerging young leaders in the HIV response

    In the Asia-Pacific Region, young people bear a large proportion of new HIV infections, and there is a need to consult them about how best to tailor prevention initiatives to meet their needs. In 2010, Youth LEAD, an organization representing young HIV advocates from across the Asia-Pacific region highlighted the need to engage young people more effectively in advocacy and programming initiatives. …

  9. Methadone maintenance treatment and mortality in HIV-positive people who inject opiods in China

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of methadone maintenance treatement on mortality in people who inject opiods and who also recieve ART for the treatment of HIV in China. The study took place between December 3, 2002 and December 31, 2011. Mortality, disease and treatment characteristics were compared in patients who received either ART and MMT or only ART. Overall, mortaliy 6 months after starting ART was lwer with ART and MMT than with only ART. …

  10. New Treatment gives hope to East Africa's drug users

    This article is about the national methadone project launched in the United Republic of Tanzania -- the first mainland sub-Saharan country to launch such a program -- as part of a battle to fight heroin addiction and HIV infection. Heroin users contribute to the HIV pandemic in Tanzania by needle sharing, therefore, the idea behind the methadone project is to safely ween heroin users off of the drug. The program is funded by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, as a response to Tanzania's growing epidemic of people who inject drugs. …

  11. Experiences from the field: HIV prevention among most at risk adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    In recent years, UNICEF has worked together with national and local authorities and civil society partners in a number of countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to develop and implement HIV prevention programmes intended to reduce risks and vul¬nerabilities among most-at-risk adolescents (MARA.) This docu¬ment presents programming experiences from seven countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. …

  12. The global HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs

    This publication addresses research questions related to an increase in the levels of access and utilization for four key interventions that have the potential to significantly reduce HIV infections among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) and their sexual and injecting partners, and hence morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). These interventions are drawn from nine consensus interventions that comprise a 'comprehensive package' for PWID. …

  13. Cost-effective interventions that focus on most-at-risk populations

    This paper explores the most cost-effective approaches to AIDS interventions in countries with low and concentrated epidemics. These epidemics are traditionally driven by populations that are classified as "Most at Risk". The populations that make up this group are sex workers, men who have sex with men and intervenous drug users. These groups are heavily marginalized, and governments are often reluctant to allocate resources to programs that target these groups. …

  14. The global state of harm reduction: towards an integrated response

    The Global State of Harm Reduction 2012 presents the major developments in harm reduction policy adoption and programme implementation that have occurred since 2010. …

  15. Women who inject drugs: a review of their risks, experiences and needs

    This report summarises the existing peer reviewed and grey literature describing evidence on the nature and degree of risks and experiences of women who inject drugs and women whose partners inject. In collecting this literature, a range of search strategies were used in tandem with expert consultations across the key themes. This report explores how women enter into drug use, how they use drugs, the relationships that shape and drive their drug use and their experiences in accessing services and treatment.

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