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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls’ dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government’s HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. …

  2. Kenya: helping adolescent mothers remain in school through strengthened implementation of school re-entry policies

    The goal of this case study is to document an activity of the STEP UP research programme consortium which resulted in successful evidence utilization. This is to both demonstrate the positive impact STEP UP is having on family planning and reproductive health policies, as well as to document the process by which this was achieved so as to inform future research of successful strategies and lessons learned. …

  3. Education for pregnant girls and young mothers. Helpdesk report

    How do Kenya, Nigeria and the UK deal with girls who get pregnant at school in terms of: (1) what the policy is around when they should leave school to have their baby, and whether this is actually implemented; (2) whether formal education is provided while they are away having their babies, how this is delivered, and whether it actually has impact on their learning; and (3) the kind of support girls get for going back to school once they have their babies and how negative attitudes are overcome. Additionally: Identify any information on bridging schools in Ghana and Liberia.

  4. Expanding access to secondary school education for teenage mothers in Kenya: a baseline study report

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) foster an understanding of the current situation and context in regard to out-of-school teenage mothers and their potential support systems for school re-entry at the household and school levels in Homa Bay County, 2) clarify possible solutions for promoting school re-entry on the part of out-of-school girls, their families, and the education sector, and 3) provide a benchmark against which changes resulting from an intervention to promote school re-entry may be measured by the endline period.

  5. Education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy: a policy dialogue in Homa Bay County, Kenya

    In collaboration with the Strengthening Evidence for Programming on Unintended Pregnancy (STEP UP) Research Programme Consortium, the Population Council has implemented a project since 2014 to increase the demand for secondary school education in Homa Bay County, Kenya – an area characterized by high, unintended teenage pregnancy and female school drop-out rates.

  6. Unintended pregnancies in Kenya: a country profile

    The report draws on data from four Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) (1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008/09), the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) (2007), the Kenya Service Provision Assessment (KSPA) (2004 and 2010) and the Kenya National Survey for Persons with Disabilities (KNSPWD) (2008). Levels of key family planning and reproductive health indicators are set out, as well as fertility-and abortion indicators in Kenya. An equity lens was used, which differentiates these indicators by age, marital status, region, education and wealth. …

  7. Education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy: a review of country experiences in sub-Saharan Africa

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), early and unintended pregnancy leads to a colossal loss of educational opportunities for girls: A high proportion of pregnancies among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in the region are unintended, and nearly all adolescent girls who have ever been pregnant are out of school in most SSA countries. Existing studies that show associations between early/unintended pregnancy and school dropout lead to critical questions about how the education sector is responding to the issue in SSA. …

  8. Kigali Declaration: Moving from aspiration to action to prevent and eliminate child, early and forced marriage in the Commonwealth

    This document is the Commonwealth Charter adopted by National Human Rights Institutions and members of the Commonwealth Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (CFNHRI) attending a working session on the imperative to prevent and eliminate child, early and forced marriage, on 5-6 May 2015 in Kigali, Rwanda.

  9. Addressing early marriage and adolescent pregnancy as a barrier to gender parity and equality in education

    Despite progress in expanding access to education for girls globally, important barriers remain. Girls’ success in school – and after leaving school – is determined in part by characteristics of and factors in her household and community. Many policies and programs are based on an assumption that continued progress toward gender equality in education is hampered by early marriage and adolescent pregnancy. While education and age at marriage (and pregnancy) are positively correlated in many settings, evidence of a causal relationship is more limited. …

  10. Challenges of school re-entry among teenage mothers in primary schools in Muhoroni district, Western Kenya

    Much has been done towards attainment of gender equity in education as envisaged in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), yet gender disparities persist in many parts of the country. Studies indicate that most of girls who drop out of school do not return to class after childbirth despite provisions for it. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence re-entry of school girl mothers in primary schools in Muhoroni District, Kisumu County in western Kenya. …

  11. Connecting the private and the public: pregnancy, exclusion, and the expansion of schooling in Africa

    In a number of countries in Africa, young women who become pregnant are excluded from school. This article presents a critique of policy and practice in this area drawing partly on Diana Leonard's scholarship concerning the relational dynamic of gender, generation, social division, and household forms. Much of the policy prescription of large global organisations concerned with the expansion of secondary schooling in Africa does not sufficiently take account of the connection between the gender dynamics of the private and that of the public outlined in Leonard's work. …

  12. De-stigmatizing teenage motherhood: towards achievement of universal basic education in Kenya

    Teenage motherhood is a situation in which a girl in teenage years, that is, 13-19 years is a mother or has a child. Globally, a third of teenage mothers live in India whereas the least affected country by teenage motherhood in the world is Japan. In Africa, it is estimated that approximately 5.5 million girls between 15-19 years are mothers .Of these 62% live in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 13,000 girls leave school every year due to teenage pregnancy. …

  13. Unintended pregnancies among young women living in urban slums: Evidence from a prospective study in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Background: Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. …

  14. Coping with unintended pregnancies: Narratives from adolescents in Nairobi’s slums

    The health and other risks associated with early pregnancy and sexual activity raise urgent need for appropriate interventions and programs to address adolescent reproductive behaviors. It is important to understand the circumstances surrounding, and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young people, the challenges that limit their ability to protect their sexual and reproductive health, and how they deal with the outcomes of unintended pregnancy. …

  15. Teenage, married and out of school. Effects of early marriage and childbirth on school dropout

    In this paper, we tackle the question of causality between early marriage and school dropout, using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from nine Southern and Eastern African countries. By comparing school participation patterns of girls who were married before or during the school year in question to those were never married, we are able to establish a sequence of events and therefore, a more solid foundation for treating marriage as a cause of school dropout. In short, the first research question for this paper is as follows: Research Question 1. …

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