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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. From ideas to action: addressing barriers to comprehensive sexuality education in the classroom

    Evidence for the positive outcomes of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) is well documented.

  2. Sero-status of preschoolers and disclosure to schools

    Infants with HIV-infection have longevity due to improved Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), making many realise their developmental progression which includes access to schooling. However, there is scant information that focuses on disclosure of their positive sero-status to schools and how these children understand and communicate their illnesses. This paper reports on a study of experiences of children affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya. …

  3. Measuring the quality of sexuality education implementation at the school level in low- and middle-income countries

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is a key component of efforts to improve sexual and reproductive outcomes for young people. While many governments have established policies and curricula for CSE, there are no quantitative measures of the quality of their implementation in schools. This article describes the construction of a school-level index to measure CSE implementation quality using data from Peru, Guatemala, Kenya and Ghana for validation. …

  4. Pupil absenteeism, measurement, and menstruation: Evidence from Kenya

    Impact evaluations focused on school absenteeism commonly use school records of untested quality or expensive spot-check data. We use a large dataset on more than 30,000 unannounced random spot-checks for 6,000 female and male students across 30 schools in Western Kenya, with equivalent school record entries. First, we confirm that while absenteeism is common overall, pubescent girls miss more schooldays than boys because of high incidence of school transfers. …

  5. Towards comprehensive sexuality education: a comparative analysis of the policy environment surrounding school-based sexuality education in Ghana, Peru, Kenya and Guatemala

    The successful implementation of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) programmes in schools depends on the development and implementation of strong policy in support of CSE. This paper offers a comparative analysis of the policy environment governing school-based CSE in four low- and middle-income countries at different stages of programme implementation: Ghana, Peru, Kenya and Guatemala. …

  6. Challenges to implementing national comprehensive sexuality education curricula in low- and middle-income countries: case studies of Ghana, Kenya, Peru and Guatemala

    School-based comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) can help adolescents achieve their full potential and realize their sexual and reproductive health and rights. This is particularly pressing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where high rates of unintended pregnancy and STIs among adolescents can limit countries’ ability to capitalize on the demographic dividend. While many LMICs have developed CSE curricula, their full implementation is often hindered by challenges around program planning and roll-out at the national and local level. …

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis: educational interventions that reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection in Kenyan teenagers

    This paper demonstrates a comprehensive and thorough application of an education cost-effectiveness analysis. Two interventions implemented in Western Kenya aimed to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS contraction in middle school girls. The cost-effectiveness of each intervention is assessed, ex post facto, by combining the results of the two programs’ evaluations with their costs. As few education evaluations consider cost, this article highlights a sound and disciplined method to use when detailed cost information is both readily available and unavailable. …

  8. Parents’ and teachers’ views on sexual health education and screening for sexually transmitted infections among in-school adolescent girls in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Background: To successfully develop and implement school-based sexual health interventions for adolescent girls, such as screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, it is important to understand parents’ and teachers’ attitudes towards sexual health education and acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions. Methods: In this qualitative study, we approached parents and teachers from three high schools to participate in in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus-group discussions (FGDs). …

  9. CSE scale-up in practice. Case studies from Eastern and Southern Africa

    The report documents the process of scaling up comprehensive sexuality education and the status of sexuality education in East and Southern Africa.

  10. Experimental evaluation of school-based HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa

    School-based adolescent health education programs represent a durable strategy in reducing the spread of HIV because they can leverage pre-existing social and organizational structures to reach large fractions of students at critical life stages. Many evaluations of school-based HIV programs draw on multilevel study designs that assign schools to treatment conditions or assign students to treatment conditions within blocks defined by school membership. …

  11. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls’ dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government’s HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. …

  12. Assessment report of health literacy and behavior change practices among adolescent girls in Kibera

    This report presents the findings of a rapid assessment of ‘Health Literacy and Behavior Change Practiced among Adolescent Girls in Kibera’ Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

  13. From paper to practice: sexuality education policies and their implementation in Kenya

    This report provides a snapshot of how sexuality education policies in Kenya are translated into practice in secondary schools, and what students, teachers and principals think about them. Data from official documents, key informant interviews and school-based surveys were used to examine how sexuality education programs in three counties were developed, implemented and experienced. …

  14. Sexuality education in Kenya: new evidence from three counties: fact sheet

    This fact sheet presents new evidence from a study conducted in Nairobi, Mombasa and Homa Bay counties in 2015. Data were collected in 78 schools from teachers, principals and students in Forms 2 and 3, as well as from key informants involved with policy and program development and implementation.

  15. Generating evidence to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of students at Kenyatta University and beyond

    This research brief describes two evidence-generation efforts undertaken by the Evidence to Action Project (E2A), of which IntraHealth is a partner, and Kenyatta University, along with support from Pathfinder International, Kenya, from 2015-2016. The first evidence-generation effort involved an assessment of select KU service delivery statistics, and the second was a qualitative research study on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors of KU students. …

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