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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  2. Strengthening contemporary school health, nutrition and HIV prevention programmes. Report of the 8th Annual Africa Short Course

    In June 2012, the Partnership for Child Development (PCD), Imperial College London, in partnership with the Eastern and Southern African Centre for International Parasite Control (ESACIPAC) and West African Centre for International Parasite Control (WACIPAC), delivered the 8th Annual Short Course on Strengthening Contemporary School Health, Nutrition and HIV Prevention Programmes at the Sun ’n’ Sand Beach Resort in Kilifi, Kenya. …

  3. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  4. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  5. Teacher management in a context of HIV and AIDS: Malawi report

    This study aims to describe and analyse the results of a qualitative research study on teacher management policies, tools and practices in Malawi, a country where HIV and AIDS is highly prevalent. The research aims to discover whether teacher management policies, tools and practices have evolved in high prevalence settings as a response to the HIV epidemic.

  6. Regional assessment on HIV-prevention needs of migrants and mobile populations in southern Africa

    Southern Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global burden of HIV: 35% of HIV infections and 38% of AIDS-related deaths in 2007 occurred in this sub-region. Southern Africa also experiences high levels of population movement, voluntary or forced, and comprises a diversity of people, including contract labor migrants, irregular migrants, families of migrants, refugees, trafficked persons and mobile workers such as truck drivers and mine workers. Furthermore, migrants have loved ones back home, who may face their own vulnerabilities, as the family breadwinner is away. …

  7. Prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a collaborative analysis of scale-up programmes

    Prognostic models have been developed for patients infected with HIV-1 who start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries, but not for patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The article shows the development of two prognostic models to estimate the probability of death in patients starting ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for adult patients who started ART in four scale-up programmes in Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Malawi from 2004 to 2007 are analised. Patients lost to follow-up in the first year were excluded. …

  8. A cash transfer program reduces HIV infections among adolescent girls

    A large randomized trial in Malawi shows that schoolgirls whose families received monthly cash transfers had a significantly lower HIV infection rate than the control group. The two-year experiment in Zomba, a district in southern Malawi, offered cash to households with schoolgirls aged 13-22 who had never been married. Some of the offers were conditional on regular school attendance, while others were unconditional. Eighteen months after the program began, the HIV prevalence among program beneficiaries was 60% lower than the control group (1.2% vs. 3.0%). …

  9. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  10. Teachers for rural schools: experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda

    Much is going well with the effort to provide universal primary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Gross enrollment rates have increased from 78 percent in 1998/99 to 91 percent in 2002/03; sizable investments have greatly improved school infrastructure and access; and large numbers of new teachers have been recruited. But educating the children in remote rural areas continues to be a challenge. Schools in hard-to-reach locations find it difficult to attract and retain teachers. …

  11. Promoting and protecting the health of orphans and vulnerable children in Monkey Bay, Malawi

    Malawi has had a rising population of orphans and vulnerable children who are reported to lack care, food, educational opportunities and adult role models. Some of the coping strategies used by these children, such as early school dropout and child labour, combined with poor adult support, make them susceptible to risk of early onset of sex and to sexual and reproductive health problems, including HIV infection. …

  12. Mortality, mobility, and schooling outcomes among orphans. Evidence from Malawi

    More than 30 percent of school-aged children have lost at least one parent in Malawi. Lack of investments in human capital and adverse conditions during childhood are often associated with lower living standards in the future. Therefore, if orphans face an increased risk of poverty, exploitation, malnutrition, and poorer access to health care and schooling, early intervention is critical so as to avoid the potential poverty trap. …

  13. National plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa. Where are the youngest children?

    In 2005, an estimated 48 million children aged 0-18 years, that is to say 12 percent of all children in sub-Saharan Africa, were orphans, and that number is expected to rise to 53 million by 2010. One quarter of all orphans are orphaned because of AIDS, and about 2.6 million children are currently infected with HIV. In response to the general awareness of the increasing number of these children, a global initiative to develop national plans of action (NPAs) for these orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs), or children affected by HIV and AIDS, has been launched. …

  14. Children Orphaned by AIDS: front-line responses from eastern and southern Africa

    This document examines the way in which the AIDS epidemicis devastating the lives of children and adolescents throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It then looks at four countrys' individual responses to the crisis and concludes with what individual countries do to help affected children and what the global community can do.

  15. A national survey of teachers on antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: access, retention in therapy and survival

    HIV/AIDS is having a devastating effect on the education sector in sub-Saharan Africa. A national survey was conducted in all public sector and private sector facilities in Malawi providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine the uptake of ART by teachers and their outcomes while on treatment. A retrospective cohort study was carried out based on patient follow-up records from ART Registers and treatment master cards in all 138 ART clinics in Malawi; observations were censored on September 30th 2006. …

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