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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Harmonizing the legal environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights: A review of 23 countries in East and Southern Africa

    The study reviews the laws, policies and related frameworks in 23 countries in East and Southern Africa (ESA) that create either impediments to, or an enabling environment for, adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The assessment resulted in the development of a harmonized regional legal framework, which translates international and regional legal provisions into useful strategies. It gives recommendations based on applicable core legal values and principles gleaned from a range of conventions, charters, political commitments, guidelines and declarations. …

  2. Strengthening comprehensive sexuality education for young people in school settings in Zambia: a review and documentation of the scale-up process

    This report documents progress on implementation of a Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)-funded UNESCO project that aims to strengthen sexuality education programmes for young people in school settings in Zambia. The project was conceptualized in line with the country’s thematic focus on broader economic and social development and is expected to reach all 9,000 government schools, 1,749,664 learners representing 100% of grades 5 to 12 learners, 40,000 in-service teachers, and 20,000 preservice teachers. …

  3. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    The authors reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use.

  4. Strengthening education in West and Central Africa by improving learners’ sexual and reproductive health

    West and Central Africa (WCA) is the region of the world with the largest percentage of young people and the highest gender disparity in education.

  5. Is the sexual behaviour of young people in sub-Saharan Africa influenced by their peers? A systematic review

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies. Evidence for the effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions in reducing incidence of HIV and other biological outcomes is limited, and the need to address the social conditions in which young people become sexually active is clear. Adolescents' peers are a key aspect of this social environment and could have important influences on sexual behaviour. There has not yet been a systematic review on the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. …

  6. Designing an effective sexuality education curriculum for schools: lessons gleaned from the South(ern) African literature

    Sexuality education forms part of the national school curricula of most sub-Saharan African countries, yet risk-related sexual behaviour among young people continues to fuel the HIV pandemic in this part of the world. One of the arguments put forward to explain why sexuality education seems to have had little impact on sexual risk-taking is that existing curricula have neglected to take into account the complexity of the social, cultural and gender norms that influence the behaviour of school-going young people in sub-Saharan Africa. …

  7. Sexuality education: a ten-country review of school curricula in East and Southern Africa

    This collaborative regional curriculum scan, which was conducted in 2011, seeks to assess the content, quality, and delivery methods of sexuality education curricula in ten ESA countries and aims to ensure that the reviews help countries to develop curricula designed to not only increase comprehensive knowledge among young people, but to empower them to adopt protective behaviours, such as refusing unwanted sex, delaying sex, using condoms and testing for HIV. The ten countries included are Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

  8. Sexuality education in South Africa: Three essential questions

    Sex education is the cornerstone on which most HIV/AIDS prevention programmes rest and since the adoption of Outcomes-Based Education (OBE), has become a compulsory part of the South African school curriculum through the Life Orientation learning area. However, while much focus has been on providing young people with accurate and frank information about safe sex, this paper questions whether school based programmes sufficiently support the needs of young people. …

  9. An integrative review of comprehensive sex education for adolescent girls in Kenya

    Purpose: The purposes of this article are to identify and review comprehensive sex education programs (CSEPs) available to adolescent females in Kenya, East Africa, to discuss barriers to implementing CSEPs in Kenya, and to highlight the role of nurses in improving and institutionalizing available CSEPs in Kenya. Design: Integrative review. Methods: A systematic search of six databases and other Internet sources was conducted to identify CSEPs currently available to adolescent girls in Kenya. Five CSEPs were identified. The CSEPs were evaluated using established criteria. …

  10. Gender and Sexuality/HIV Education

    Sex/HIV education curricula have disparate effects for females and males. Review of 59 rigorous sex ed evaluations from the U.S. and developing countries. After omitting single sex programs, programs with no effect, and programs that changed only knowledge, 38 remained (25 U.S. and 13 developing country). A third of these failed to disaggregate results by gender, leaving 25. This article looks at why this is the case and how gender affects SRH outcomes.

  11. Review of sex, relationships and HIV education in schools

    In 2007, UNESCO commissioned this desk-based review of the global state of sex and HIV education in the formal education sector in order to inform its possible future work in this area. The review is based on twenty-two key informant interviews with experts from Africa, Europe and North and South America, together with searches of published and grey literature obtained from the internet, databases and personal recommendation, as well as manual searching of key journals. …

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