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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Water, sanitation, and primary school attendance: a multi-level assessment of determinants of household-reported absence in Kenya

    This cross-sectional analysis examined the influence of school and household water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions on recent primary school absence in light of other individual, household, and school characteristics in western Kenya. School latrine cleanliness was the only school WASH factor associated with reduced odds of absence. The marginal effect of household characteristics, such as distance to water source, child involvement in water collection, and presence of a latrine, differed by gender. …

  2. The effects of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Zambia

    Global investments in girls’ education have been motivated, in part, by an expectation that more-educated women will have smaller and healthier families. However, in many low- and middle-income countries, the timing of school dropout and first birth coincide, resulting in a rapid transition from the role of student to the role of mother for adolescent girls. Despite growing interest in the effects of pregnancy on levels of school dropout, researchers have largely overlooked the potential effect of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy. …

  3. The Good School Toolkit for reducing physical violence from school staff to primary school students: a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Uganda

    Violence against children from school staff is widespread in various settings, but few interventions address this. The authors tested whether the Good School Toolkit - a complex behavioural intervention designed by Ugandan not-for-profit organisation Raising Voices - could reduce physical violence from school staff to Ugandan primary school children. Methods: The authors randomly selected 42 primary schools (clusters) from 151 schools in Luwero District, Uganda, with more than 40 primary 5 students and no existing governance interventions. All schools agreed to be enrolled. …

  4. Does schooling protect sexual health? The association between three measures of education and STIs among adolescents in Malawi

    While multiple studies have documented shifting educational gradients in HIV prevalence, less attention has been given to the effect of school participation and academic skills on infection during adolescence. …

  5. 'Culturespeak' is everywhere: an analysis of culturalist narratives in approaches to sexuality education in Mozambique

    Building on postcolonial feminist scholars and critical anthropological work, this paper analyses the frequent deployment of the notion of ‘culture’ by decision-makers, educators, international agency staff and young people in the design, delivery and uptake of sexuality and HIV prevention education in Mozambique. The paper presents qualitative data gathered in Maputo, Mozambique to highlight the essentialising nature of culturalist assumptions underpinning in-school sexuality education. …

  6. Bullying and school attendance: a case study of senior high school students in Ghana

    This paper focuses on senior high school students and the ways that bullying affects their school attendance. Selected items from the 2008 Ghana Global School-based Student Health Survey are analysed first to explore the relationships between the duration and type of bullying and school attendance. Second, the authors investigate whether having emotional problems, in addition to being bullied, incrementally affects the relationship between bullying and school attendance. Third, the authors explore the mitigating influence of peer friendships on these relationships. …

  7. Violence against adolescent girls: trends and lessons for East Africa

    This report seeks to explore the unique experience of adolescent girls by examining the types of gender-based violence affecting this group as well as drivers of this violence, within the frame of high levels of gender inequality in South Sudan. Data for this study was collected as part of the research program of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls (‘What Works’) Consortium funded by the government of the United Kingdom (UK)’s Department for International Development (DfID). …

  8. The effects of school violence on education in Malawi: brief

    In response to a global policy effort to increase school enrollment, in 1994 Malawi became one of the first low-income countries to eliminate primary school fees. Since then, Malawi has achieved nearly universal primary enrollment, however enrolling young Malawians in school has not translated into keeping them in school. This policy brief describes the nature and consequences of school violence in rural Malawi - a common experience for both girls and boys. …

  9. School feeding in Ghana. Investment case: cost-benefit analysis report

    The Ghana Cost Benefit Analysis was conducted to bring to the attention of government and other stakeholders in school feeding, the investment returns that school feeding yields, and to see school feeding not just as a cost, but as an investment in the Ghana’s human capital and the economy at large. The contribution of school feeding to improving human capital cannot be underestimated; therefore, school feeding should remain a priority for all successive government. This should be supported by legislation. …

  10. Parent’s knowledge, aptitudes and practices (KAP) towards comprehensive sexuality education in secondary school in Rwanda

    In Rwanda, Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) has been subsumed in the new Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) as one of the essential cross cutting components. The aim of the school based CSE is to equip children with knowledge, skills and values in an age appropriate and culturally gender sensitive manner so as to enable them to make responsible choices about their sexual and social relationships, explain and clarify feelings, values and attitudes, as well as to promote and sustain risk reducing behavior (Rwanda Education Board, 2015). …

  11. Using podcasts to deliver youth-friendly information about sexual and reproductive health and rights in Burundi

    We live in a digital age where, for many of us, all the information we need is just a click away. In Burundi, as in the rest of the world, young people are often the most active users of information communication technology (ICT). Frontline AIDS saw an opportunity to use ICT to provide adolescents with both SRHR information and safe spaces to engage with their peers and experts. Whilst ‘ICT for health’ is a frequent topic among HIV and SRHR organisations in Burundi, using ICT to improve access to youth-friendly and comprehensive HIV and SRHR information was something new.

  12. The association between being currently in school and HIV prevalence among young women in nine eastern and southern African countries

    Interventions to keep adolescent girls and young women in school, or support their return to school, are hypothesised to also reduce HIV risk. Such interventions are included in the DREAMS combination package of evidence-based interventions. Although there is evidence of reduced risky sexual behaviours, the impact on HIV incidence is unclear. We used nationally representative surveys to investigate the association between being in school and HIV prevalence.

  13. Why teach sexuality education in school ? Teacher discretion in implementing comprehensive sexuality education in rural Zambia

    Reproductive health problems such as HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion among adolescents are closely linked to insufficient knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and lack of access to contraceptives. Supported by international agencies, Zambia has introduced an ambitious nation-wide program for comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to be implemented into ordinary school activities by teachers. The curriculum is firmly based in a discourse of sexual and reproductive rights, not commonly found in the public debate on sexuality in Zambia. …

  14. From ideas to action: addressing barriers to comprehensive sexuality education in the classroom

    Evidence for the positive outcomes of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) is well documented.

  15. Food for thought? Experimental evidence on the learning impacts of a large-scale school feeding program

    There is limited experimental evidence of the impact of large-scale, government-led school meals programs on educational achievements. The authors report results from a nationwide randomized trial of the Government of Ghana’s school feeding program. After two years, program availability led to moderate increases in test scores for the average pupil, and to remarkable learning and cognitive gains for girls, and children from the poorest households and regions. Increases in enrolment, attainment, and shifts in time spent at school constituted mechanisms for impact. …

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