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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Punitive laws, key population size estimates, and Global AIDS Response Progress Reports: an ecological study of 154 countries

    UN global plans on HIV/AIDS have committed to reducing the number of countries with punitive laws criminalizing key populations. This study explores whether punitive laws are associated with countries’ performance on targets set in the global plans. As a result, it states that a significantly larger proportion of countries that criminalize same-sex sexual behaviour reported implausibly low size estimates or no size estimates for MSM. …

  2. Development of a nationally coordinated evaluation plan for the Ghana National Strategy for Key Populations

    Objective: Just as HIV prevention programs need to be tailored to the local epidemic, so should evaluations be country-owned and country-led to ensure use of those results in decision making and policy. The objective of this paper is to describe the process undertaken in Ghana to develop a national evaluation plan for the Ghana national strategy for key populations. Methods: This was a participatory process that involved meetings between the Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC), other partners in Ghana working to prevent HIV among key populations, and MEASURE Evaluation. …

  3. Hidden from health: structural stigma, sexual orientation concealment, and HIV across 38 countries in the European MSM Internet Survey

    Objective: Substantial country-level variation exists in prejudiced attitudes towards male homosexuality and in the extent to which countries promote the unequal treatment of MSM through discriminatory laws. The impact and underlying mechanisms of country-level stigma on odds of diagnosed HIV, sexual opportunities, and experience of HIV-prevention services, needs and behaviours have rarely been examined, however. Design: Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS), which was administered between June and August 2010 across 38 European countries (N = 174 209). …

  4. Defeating AIDS—advancing global health

    After more than a decade of major achievements, the AIDS response is at a crucial juncture, both in terms of its immediate trajectory and its sustainability, as well as its place in the new global health and development agendas. In May, 2013, the UNAIDS–Lancet Commission— a diverse group of experts in HIV, health, and development, young people, people living with HIV and affected communities, activists, and political leaders— was established to investigate how the AIDS response could evolve in a new era of sustainable development. …

  5. HIV and adolescents: focus on young key populations

    Adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for HIV due to the many developmental, psychological, social, and structural transitions that converge in this period of the lifespan. In addition, adolescent deaths resulting from HIV continue to rise despite declines in other age groups. There are also young key populations (YKPs) that bear disproportionate burdens of HIV and are the most vulnerable, including young men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender youth, young people who inject drugs, and adolescent and young adult sex workers. …

  6. Lessons learned from a review of interventions for adolescent and young key populations in Asia Pacific and opportunities for programming

    BACKGROUND: Over a third of new HIV infections globally are among 15-24 year-olds and over 20% among adolescents aged 10-19 years in Asia Pacific. The review was initiated to identify interventions in the region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP) looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery. The review is a component of a more comprehensive review undertaken by UNICEF and partners in the region. METHODS:This was a desk review of over 1000 articles, and 37 were selected. …

  7. Targeting HIV prevention messaging to a new generation of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men

    HIV prevention messaging has been shown to reduce or delay high-risk sexual behaviors in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a new generation of YMSM has come of age during an evolution in communication modalities. Because both these communication technologies and this new generation remain understudied, the authors investigated the manner in which YMSM interact with HIV prevention messaging. …

  8. Bisexual behavior among Chinese young migrant men who have sex with men: implications for HIV prevention and intervention

    The authors analyzed data from 307 Chinese young migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing to examine bisexual behavior and the associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Twenty-seven percent of the MSM were also concurrently engaged in sexual behavior with women (MSMW). Among MSMW, 8.4% were infected with HIV, and 10.8% with syphilis, compared to 4.9% and 23.7%, respectively, among men who have sex with men only (MSM-only). …

  9. HIV, syphilis infection, and risky sexual behaviors among male university students who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study

    Young male university students who have sex with men are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors, HIV, and syphilis among male university students who have sex with men in Beijing, China; and to identify risk factors for unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Among 157 study participants, HIV and syphilis prevalence were 2.5% and 7.0%, respectively. The authors found a high prevalence of UAI in the study population. …

  10. Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to bear a high burden of HIV infection. In sub-Saharan Africa, same-sex behaviours have been largely neglected by HIV research up to now. The results from recent studies, however, indicate the widespread existence of MSM groups across Africa, and high rates of HIV infection, HIV risk behaviour, and evidence of behavioural links between MSM and heterosexual networks have been reported. …

  11. Male Homosexual Identities, Relationships, and Practices among Young Men Who have Sex with Men in Vietnam: Implications for HIV Prevention

    This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15-24 in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city of Vietnam. The analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. The report documents the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. …

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