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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Understanding child marriage: insights from comparative research

    This is the first policy brief produced by the Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS), looking at research findings from Young Lives (Ethiopia, Peru, Vietnam and the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana) and Child Frontiers (Zambia).

  2. Jamaica’s policy for the school reintegration of school-age mothers. How are we doing and where do we need to go?

    This paper examines the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in Jamaica, the girls most affected, and where and when they are most vulnerable. The paper also discusses the provisions for continuing education under the National Policy for the Reintegration of School-Age Mothers into the Formal School System. It assesses whether the policy is reaching the target group and its effectiveness in addressing access to secondary education for teen mothers.

  3. Understanding teenage fertility, cohabitation, and marriage: the case of Peru

    This paper intends to contribute to the economic literature that investigates the origins of teenage pregnancy and early marriage/co habitation in Peru and to improve understanding of the risk factors of one important gender-related issue that has historically provoked asymmetric costs for boys and girls. …

  4. How reliable are reports of early adolescent reproductive and sexual health events in demographic and health surveys?

    CONTEXT: Age at sexual debut, age at first marriage or first union and age at first birth are among the most widely used indicators of health and well-being for female adolescents. However, the accuracy of estimates for these indicators, particularly for younger adolescents, is poorly understood. METHODS: For each of nine countries in Africa and Latin America, Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from two surveys conducted five years apart were used to examine women’s reports of age at sexual debut, marriage or first union, and first birth. …

  5. Embarazo adolescente y oportunidades en América Latina y el Caribe: sobre maternidad temprana, pobreza y logros económicos

    El presente informe examina los factores asociados con el embarazo adolescente y la maternidad temprana y crea un marco para explorar estos temas de forma sistemática hacia el diseño de intervenciones efectivas en el marco de políticas en América L atina. El mensaje principal que este reporte pretende divulgar es que la pobreza y la falta de oportunidades son factores clave asociados a la maternidad temprana. …

  6. Análisis legislativo comparado sobre embarazo adolescente matrimonio temprano

    El presente documento tiene por objetivo principal el realizar un estudio comparado sobre la situación actual de la legislación en relación a la prevención del embarazo adolescente y el matrimonio temprano en la región de América Latina y El Caribe, que destaque la legislación existente y su nivel de adecuación en comparación a los estándares de derechos humanos en la materia.

  7. Addressing early marriage and adolescent pregnancy as a barrier to gender parity and equality in education

    Despite progress in expanding access to education for girls globally, important barriers remain. Girls’ success in school – and after leaving school – is determined in part by characteristics of and factors in her household and community. Many policies and programs are based on an assumption that continued progress toward gender equality in education is hampered by early marriage and adolescent pregnancy. While education and age at marriage (and pregnancy) are positively correlated in many settings, evidence of a causal relationship is more limited. …

  8. The miseducation of Latin American girls: poor schooling makes pregnancy a rational choice

    Our interest in understanding the determinants of adolescent childbearing and how adolescent childbearing influences educational trajectories derive from a concern about the inverse relationship between educational outcomes and adolescent fertility. Through in-depth interviews with 118 women, we contrast the educational trajectories of adolescent and adult child-bearers in urban neighborhoods in Paraguay and Peru. The findings suggest that adolescents who face obstacles that discourage academic achievement and high aspirations in life are also more likely to bear children. …

  9. Adolescent motherhood and secondary schooling in Chile

    The authors analyze the determinants of adolescent motherhood and its subsequent effect on high school attendance and completion in Chile. Using eight rounds of household surveys, they find that adolescents who were born to teen mothers, those that live in poor households and in single-mother families, are more likely to have children, while access to full-time high schools reduces the likelihood of motherhood. They then estimate the effect of adolescent motherhood on the probability of high school attendance and completion. …

  10. The influence of early sexual debut and sexual violence on adolescent pregnancy: a matched case-control study in Jamaica

    CONTEXT: Contraceptive knowledge and use at first sex have increased over time among Jamaican adolescents, yet high unintended pregnancy rates persist. More information on risk factors for adolescent pregnancy is needed to inform programs. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 15–17-year-old females—250 who were currently pregnant and 500 sexually experienced, but never-pregnant, neighborhood-matched controls. …

  11. Situación actual del embarazo adolescente en Chile

    En Chile, desde la definición de la Política de Regulación de la Fecundidad en el año 1967, la actividad de Regulación de la Fecundidad está incorporada oficialmente dentro del Programa de Salud de la Mujer del Ministerio de Salud, donde se ha desarrollado e implementado, en forma ininterrumpida a partir de entonces. …

  12. Executive Summary: Sexual risk and protective factors. Factors affecting teen sexual behavior, pregnancy, childbearing and sexually transmitted disease: What are important? Which can you change?

    Executive Summary: Sexual Risk and Protective Factors. Factors Affecting Teen Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, Childbearing And Sexually Transmitted Disease: What Are Important? Which Can You Change? is a document part of the project of the United States National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. It addresses two main primary questions: 1) what factors influence adolescents' decisions about sex? And 2) Which of these factors can be altered? By identifying and targeting those factors it tries to provide information to reduce sexual risk-taking.

  13. Preventing teen pregnancy among marginalized youth: Developing a policy, program, and research agenda for the future

    The document is a report produced by Healthy Teen Networks in September 2008. Its vision is that all young people make responsible decisions regarding their sexual, reproductive, and parenting behaviors. The document focuses on improving the effective transition to adulthood among all young by examining how to be more effective in reducing their risk of early pregnancy. …

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