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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Challenges in developing national HIV guidelines: experience from the eastern Mediterranean

    Objective: To appraise the process of development and clinical content of national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical practice guidelines of countries in the eastern Mediterranean and to formulate recommendations for future guideline development and adaptation. Methods Twenty-three countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean and United Nations Children’s Fund Middle East and North Africa regions were invited to submit national HIV clinical practice guidelines for review. …

  2. Orphan and vulnerable children: health policy interventions in India

    This paper reviews and discusses studies and interventions which have addressed the problems and concerns of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in India. Most of the research and commentary on OVC is based on investigations conducted in African countries. Accordingly, this review focuses on OVC in India in order to facilitate further critical discussion and the development of appropriate programmes and policies for the Indian context. …

  3. Advancing Sexuality Education in Developing Countries: Evidence and Implications

    Educators, researchers, policymakers and parents alike have become increasingly interested in the potential for sexuality education to help meet the needs of young people. The quality and quantity of evaluation research in this field has improved dramatically over the last decade, and there is now clear evidence that sexuality education programs can help young people to delay sexual activity and improve their contraceptive use when they begin to have sex. …

  4. HIV/AIDS Prevention among Youth: What Works?

    Young people are at the heart of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Not only are they disproportionately represented in terms of new infections, but they are also key to overcoming the disease. Effective HIV prevention efforts that focus on youth are crucial to reversing the pandemic. The World Bank is one of the largest official financiers of HIV/AIDS programs in the world, with over $2.7 billion committed for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, support and treatment since 1988. …

  5. Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, ages 17-22 years. Information was collected via survey on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. …

  6. Assessing reasons for school/college dropout among young adults and implications for awareness about STDs and HIV/AIDS: findings from a population-based study in Karachi, Pakistan

    This study investigated, among young adults in Karachi, Pakistan, the risk factors associated with involuntary school/college dropout and the implications for awareness about HIV/AIDS and STIs. The authors conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study with a structured questionnaire among 1,650 young males and females, ages 17-21 years and living in Karachi. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed separately for males and females. Females were twice as likely to drop out of school/college as males. …

  7. Effectiveness of an HIV prevention program for secondary school students in Mongolia

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-year human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program for adolescents attending secondary school in Mongolia. METHODS: Comparisons of knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and safe sex practices of grade 10 students from schools with a peer education prevention program to grade 10 students from schools without the intervention. Peer education programs were launched in 2000 across Mongolia. …

  8. Effects of drug relief hospital-based AIDS educational methods on drug users

    This study aimed to identify effective methods to train medical personnel to educate drug users on HIV prevention. One hundred and sixty-one participants from 13 provinces were recruited at a drug relief hospital in Beijing, China. Average age was about 35.21 years, years of drug addiction was 7, and number of drug relief treatments received in past was 5.5. Participants knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was tested before and after the HIV awareness training. Results show that there was a statistically significant increase in knowledge on these issues after education. …

  9. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    This qualitative study aimed to understand how knowledge of HIV and risk perceptiosn influence safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Focus group discussions and semistructured interviews were used to gather data on female sex workers (FSW) (n=174) from 19 sites. FSWs also completed a structured, demographic questionnaire. Although some FSWs had misconceptions, the majority knew about HIV risk, transmission and prevention methods. …

  10. HIV prevention through drugs and sex education in junior high schools in Bandung West Java: the teachers' perspective

    The aim of this report was to identify teachers' views on knowledge, skills and curriculum content needs; attitudes; self-efficacy; and beliefs regarding teaching reproductive health and drug education in their junior high schools, in order to identify whether such programs should be implemented. From February through April 2009, 133 teachers completed a survey documenting socio demographics, behavioral intention, perceived behavior control, content knowledge, school climate, reproductive health (RH) knowledge and school drug education (DE). …

  11. The Role of Nonformal Education in Combating the HIV Epidemic in the Philippines and Taiwan

    This study compares the approaches of Taiwan and the Philippines in mitigating their HIV epidemics using non-formal educational programs. The Philippines has an HIV prevalence of 6,000-11,000 cases out of a population of 91 million. Their approach was to target female sex workers and their managers, before expanding to men in the community, and relying heavily on NGOs to provide sex education. Taiwan was a prevalence of 40,000 cases out of a 23 million person population. …

  12. Study of knowledge, perception and attitude of adolescent girls towards STIs/HIV, safer sex and sex education: (A cross sectional survey of urban adolescent school girls in South Delhi, India)

    This cross-sectional study conducted in 2007 in South Delhi, India aimed to assess adolescent school girls' knowledge, attitudes and perceptionsátowards STIs/HIV and safer sex practices and sex education and to explore current sexual behavior. Two hundred and fifty-one female students from two senior secondary schools completed self-administered questionnaires. Over 33% of students did nto have accurate knowledge of the symptoms of STIs other than HIV. …

  13. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission among the adolescent girls in slum areas

    This cross sectional study in the Solapur Municipal Corporation (Western Maharashtra) looked at 400 adolescent girls' knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Simple random sampling was used to identify the respondents. Data was gathered through interviews. When compared to a study conducted among adolescents in South Delhi and another among youth in Vadodara district, India (McManus & Dhar, 2008; Kotecha et al. 2011), a larger percentage of girls did not know how HIV is transmitted (54.25% versus 33% and 19.2% respectively). …

  14. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it.

  15. Special issue: anti-homophobia teacher education

    This special issue focuses on one particular field of social justice; that is, anti-homophobia education. The various papers included explore how antihomophobia education is being approached in some teacher education programs and in the broader field of education in regions of Australia and Canada. It provides a glimpse of how teacher educators and educators more generally are trying to counteract, disrupt and challenge the homophobia and heterosexism that prevail in educational contexts and in broader communities. …

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