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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Marital and fertility decision-making. The lived experiences of adolescents and young married couples in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India

    This report presents findings from a qualitative sub-study exploring adolescent girls and young couples’ experiences of marital and fertility decision-making in two southern Indian states (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana). Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are among the top states reporting high adolescent fertility: 12 and 11 per cent of young women age 15-19 in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, respectively, were already mothers or pregnant when surveyed in 2015/16. …

  2. Coming of age in the classroom: religious and cultural barriers to comprehensive sexuality education

    This paper elucidates evidence which underscores anxieties and panic about sexuality and sexual behaviour of young people influenced by movements advancing a distinct religious identity, and the implications for advocacy on advancing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). Synthesised in this document is evidence from two countries - Bangladesh and India - on Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE), an area of controversy (to varying degree) in both countries. Evidence from each country stem from national studies on the influence of religion on CSE, and are qualitative in nature. …

  3. Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in Asia: a regional brief

    This brief aims to provide an overview on the status of the implementation of CSE within Asia, drawing specifically to 11 countries from South, South East and Central Asia. It further analyses the current laws and policies on the status of CSE while presenting the gaps, challenges and barriers on its implementation. Furthermore, the brief also posits recommendations for the improvement of the existing policies, which would enable progressive action by governments, policy-makers, duty-bearers, non-governmental bodies, and other stakeholders. …

  4. National strategic plan for HIV/AIDS and STI 2017 – 2024

    The vision of the NACO is that of ‘Paving the way for an AIDS free India’ through ‘attaining universal coverage of HIV prevention, treatment to care continuum of services that are effective, inclusive, equitable and adapted to needs’. The goals remain those of the ‘Three Zeros’ - i.e. zero new infections, zero AIDS-related deaths and zero discrimination which form the basis of this strategic plan.

  5. What did it take to scale-up and sustain Udaan, a school-based adolescent education programme in Jharkhand, India?

    Between 2006 and 2016, Udaan (which means to soar in fl ight in Hindi) – a school-based adolescent health education programme (AEP) was designed and implemented in Jharkhand state, India. The programme was scaled-up to cover all the state’s secondary schools, and sustained over time. It was extended to the state’s upper primary schools, at a subsequent stage. While this was happening in Jharkhand, AEPs in other states of the country were either halted because of opposition or slowly ran into the ground. …

  6. School feeding and learning achievement: evidence from India’s Midday Meal Program

    We study the effect of the world’s largest school feeding program on children’s learning outcomes. Staggered implementation across different states of a 2001 Indian Supreme Court Directive mandating the introduction of free school lunches in public primary schools generates plausibly exogenous variation in program exposure across different birth cohorts. We exploit this to estimate the effect of program exposure on math and reading test scores of primary school-aged children. …

  7. Attention to menstrual hygiene management in schools: An analysis of education policy documents in low- and middle-income countries

    Recent decades have seen a push for gender parity in education in low resource countries. Attention is shifting to how school environments hinder the achievement of gender equality. One effort, primarily led by the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, includes a focus on the needs of menstruating girls.

  8. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education: Proceedings of the 5th Annual Virtual Conference on Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools

    Capturing girls’ voices: Channelling girls’ recommendations into global and national level action. Globally, there are around 600 million adolescent girls. Adolescence is a pivotal transitional period that requires special attention to ensure progress for all girls, especially the most vulnerable, and poses a unique opportunity to break intergenerational cycles of poverty and to transform gender roles. The onset of puberty and menstruation can pose an additional barrier to a girl’s personal freedom, and can signal entry into a different role in their family and wider society. …

  9. Creating village champions for girls’ education

    Families, communities and village governments are often the key decision-makers regarding girls’ lives. They can also be the most difficult to persuade in terms of delaying girls’ marriages. Their support can ensure that changes initiated by Samata are sustained well after the end of the programme.

  10. Schools become safer and friendly for girls

    Samata works with 64 schools across 49 villages in two districts of Bagalkot and Bijapur in northern Karnataka. Teachers and members of the School Development Management Committee (SDMC) are given gender training, as they are key stakeholders in transforming schools into gender-responsive teaching and learning environments. …

  11. Fostering adolescent girl leaders

    At the heart of the Samata intervention is the development of a cadre of adolescent girl leaders who will sustain changes in favour of girls’ education and gender equality in their villages. The programme mentors girls to become confident and vocal young feminists, active in their communities and schools. Samata aims to equip them with the knowledge and skills to effectively negotiate a space that is hostile to women. Overall, the Samata programme has reached 3,600 girls across 69 villages in 2 districts of Bagalkot and Bijapur in northern Karnataka.

  12. Mentoring adolescent boys to reduce gender-based violence

    According to the theory of change that underlies the Samata programme, one important factor in keeping girls in school is to reduce gender-based violence by their male peers. This brief explains how Samata works with adolescent boys.

  13. The sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in India: a review of the situation

    This paper synthesises the evidence on sexual and reproductive health situation of young people in India, sheds light on those sub-populations of young people who are most vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive outcomes, and assesses the barriers that compromise the sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people at the individual and family levels, as well as at the programme delivery level.

  14. Teenage marriage, fertility, and well-being: panel evidence from India

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Andhra Pradesh, tracking a cohort of children who were born in 1994–95 from the ages of 8 to 19 years, to ask three key questions about teenage marriage and fertility in India. First, what predicts getting married during the teen years? Second, what predicts having given birth by 19? …

  15. Factors shaping trajectories to child and early marriage: evidence from Young Lives in India

    The 2011 Census in India reported that nearly 17 million children between the ages of 10 and 19 –6% of the age group – are married, with girls constituting the majority (76 per cent), although there has been a significant relative reduction in the marriage of girls under 14. The aim of this paper is to better understand the individual, household and community factors that explain the different pathways to marriage among Young Lives children, drawing upon both descriptive statistics from the household survey as well as in-depth qualitative research with the study children.

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